Paeonia Species
based on / copied from D. Y. Hong "Paeonies of the World" vol. 1-3 (2010, 2011, 2021)

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P. officinalis (Linné, 1753)

[Linné, Species Plantarum, 1753, p. 530]

consisting of 5 subspecies --- Key to P. officinalis subsp.
First Description: P. officinalis (Linné, 1753)
Synonyms: P. officinalis var. feminea (Linné, 1753)
P. foemina (Garsault, 1764)
P. peregrina var. cretica (Huth, 1891)
P. foeminea (Miller, 1768)
P. hirsuta (Miller, 1768)
P. nemoralis (Salisbury, 1796)
P. feminea (Desfontaines, 1804)
P. officinalis var. hirsuta (Martyn, 1807)
P. paradoxa var. fimbriata (Sabine, 1817)
P. paradoxa (Anderson, 1818)
P. mollis (Anderson, 1818)
P. pubens (Sims, 1821)
P. sessiliflora (Sims, 1826)
P. villosa (?, 1827)
P. festiva (Tausch, 1828)
P. promiscua (Tausch, 1828)
P. commutata (Wenderoth, 1829)
P. rosea (Host, 1831)
P. porrigens (Reichenbach, 1832)
P. baxteri (Sabine ex Salm-Dyck, 1834)
P. elegans (Sabine ex Salm-Dyck, 1834)
P. lanceolata (Salm-Dyck, 1834)
P. subternata (Salm-Dyck, 1834)
P. lobata (Reichenbach, 1840)
P. barrii (Lynch, 1890)
P. peregrina f. paradoxa (Rouy & Foucaud, 1893)
P. officinalis subsp. euofficinalis var. feminea (Fiori, 1898)
P. officinalis subsp. euofficinalis var. paradoxa (1898)
Plant: Ploidy: 2n=20
Growth Type: herbaceous / perennial
Height: 25-80cm
Roots: tuberous-thickened; caudex short, less than 10cm long
others: stems mostly hirsute, green or purple-red, 25-80cm tall
Leaves: # segmentation: 11-130
others: lower leaves biternate; leaflets 9, usually segmented;
leaflets plus leaf segmetns 11-130;
linear-elliptic to elliptic, or oblanceolate, cuneate at the base, acuminate or acute at the apex, lobed or entire,
3-12cm long, 1-4.5cm wide, glabrous above, villose, rarely glabrous beneath
Flowers: Season:  
# flowers/stem: solitary, terminal
Bracts: involucrate bracts 1-2, leaf-like
Sepals: 3-5, deltoid-orbicular to orbicular, mostly rounded at the apex, hispidulous or glabrous on the abaxial side
Petals: 5-8, pale violet-red or purple-red
Flower Colour: pale violet-red or purple-red
Filaments: purple
Anthers: yellow
Disk: up to 1mm high, flat or waved, red
Fruit: Season:  
# of Carpells: 1-5, but mostly 2 or 3
Carpell: tomentose or glabrous, hairs 1.5-2mm long, yellow, brown or pink
Style / Stigma: stigmas sessile, red, ca. 1.5mm wide
Follicles / Ovary / Ovules: follicles long-ovoid when young
Habitat: Location:  
Geogr. Distr.: widely distributes from the Iberian Peninsula to the Balkans via France, Italy and Switzerland
Countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Albania
Common Names: common garden peony
common peony
European common peony
European peony
Pentecost rose
king's flower
German vinegar rose
scarlet mallow
St. George's flower

  Key to the   P. officinalis subsp.

Key / Info Name                  
1a Carpels glabrous, occasionally sparsely hirsute; sepals mostly glabrous; leaflets or leaf segments usually obtuse at the apex, often lobed; stems mostly glabrous 33e P. officinalis subsp. microcarpa
1b Carpels tomentose; sepals ususally pubescent; leaflets or leaf segments usually acuminate at apex, entire, rarely lobed; stems hirsute or glabrous
2a Leaflets plus leaf segments 11-24 in number, 2-4.5cm wide, glabrous or sparsely villose beneath; sepals glabrous or sparsely pubescent 33b P. officinalis subsp. banatica
2b Leaflets plus leaf segments 19-130 in number, 1-3cm wide, always villose beneath; sepals always pubescent
3a Leaflets plus leaf segments 35-130 in number, always with some lobed, 1-2cm wide 33c P. officinalis subsp. huthii
3b Leaflets plus leaf segments 19-45 in number, all entire or occasionally very few lobed, 1-3cm wide
4a Leaves villose-floccose beneath, hairs flattened at base 33d P. officinalis subsp. huthii
4b Leaves hairy but never villose-floccose beneath, hairs cylindrical 33a P. officinalis subsp. officinalis

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